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搜索

免疫与炎症

免疫.jpg

  炎症是指具有血管系统的活体组织对致炎因子及局部损伤所发生的防御性为主的反应,中心环节是血管反应,是生物组织受到外伤、出血或病原感染等刺激,激发的生理反应,表现为红、肿、热、痛和功能障碍。炎性反应是先天免疫系统为移除有害刺激或病源体及促进修复的保护措施,并非如后天免疫系统般针对特定病源体。炎性反应并非等同于感染,即使很多时炎症是因感染而发生,炎症是生物体对病源体之反应之一。炎症,可以是感染引起的感染性炎症,也可以不是由于感染引起的非感染性炎症。通常情况下,炎症是有益的,是人体的自动的防御反应,但是有的时候,炎症也是有害的,例如对人体自身组织的攻击、发生在透明组织的炎症等。

  长期炎症可引起一系列疾病,如花粉症、牙周炎、动脉粥样硬化、类风湿性关节炎,甚至癌症(如胆囊癌),因此炎性反应在正常情况下受生物体紧密监控。

  炎性反应可分为急性炎症和慢性炎症。急性炎症是生物体应该有害刺激的初步反应,更多的血浆和白血球(特别是粒细胞)从血液移往受损组织。一连串的生化反应进行传播并促成进一步的炎性反应,当中牵涉局部的血管系统、免疫系统及受损组织内的各个细胞。慢性炎症引致炎症部位的细胞类型改变,组织的毁灭与修复同时进行。

  如果是由感染引起的感染性炎症,可以使用一般人所说的“消炎药”或注射“消炎针”,实际上指的是抗生素,其实是杀死或抑制细菌的繁殖,而使感染引起的炎症减少。如果不是由感染引起的炎症,医学上对于抑制炎症反应,用的是非类固醇抗炎症剂或类固醇。

免疫指生物机体识别和排除抗原物质的一种保护性反应。其中包括特异性免疫(后天免疫系统)与非特异性免疫(先天免疫系统)。

  免疫一般表现为免疫防御,免疫监视和免疫自身稳定。

  免疫防御:防止外界病原体的入侵及清除已入侵病原体(如细菌、病毒、真菌、支原体、衣原体、寄生虫等)及其他有害物质。免疫防御功能过低或缺路,可发生免疫缺陷病;但若应答过强或持续时间过长,则在清除病原体的同时,也可导致机体的组织损伤或功能异常,发生超敏反应。

  免疫监视:随时发现和清除体内出现的“非己”成分;如由基因突变而发生的肿瘤细胞以及衰老、凋亡细胞。免疫监视功能低下,可能导致肿瘤的发生及持续性病毒感染。

  免疫自身稳定:通过自身免疫耐受和免疫调节两种主要的机制来达到免疫系统内的稳定。

  一般机体免疫保护机体受到外部损害,对机体有利,但有时会令机体产生变态反应,被认为是对机体不利的。


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