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搜索

表观遗传

大脑中非常规的表观遗传现象.jpg  表观遗传学又译为表征遗传学、拟遗传学、表遗传学、外遗传学以及后遗传学,在生物学和特定的遗传学领域,其研究的是在不改变DNA序列的前提下,通过某些机制引起可遗传的基因表达或细胞表现型的变化。

  表观遗传的现象很多,已知的有DNA甲基化,基因组印记,母体效应,基因沉默,核仁显性,休眠转座子激活和RNA编辑等。表征遗传学在真核生物中主要表现在细胞分化过程。在胚胎形态形成过程中,全能干细胞将分化成完全不同的细胞,即一个受精卵细胞分化出各种不同类型的细胞,包括神经细胞、肌肉细胞、上皮细胞、血管内皮细胞等,并通过抑制其他细胞和激活相关基因而进行持续的细胞分裂。

表观遗传学的主要调节机制如下:

       1.DNA修饰

       DNA甲基化是目前研究最充分的表观遗传修饰形式。正常的甲基化对于维持细胞的生长及代谢等是必需的,而异常的DNA甲基化则会引发疾病(如肿瘤),因为异常的甲基化一方面可能使抑癌基因无法转录,另一方面也会导致基因组不稳定。因此,研究DNA甲基化对于了解生物生长发育及疾病治疗是非常有帮助的。DNA修饰是指DNA共价结合一个修饰基团,使具有相同序列的等位基因处于不同修饰状态。

       2.组蛋白修饰

  真核生物DNA被组蛋白组成的核小体紧密包绕,组蛋白上的许多位点都可以被修饰,尤其是赖氨酸。组蛋白修饰可影响组蛋白与DNA双链的亲和性,从而改变染色质的疏松和凝集状态,进而影响转录因子等调节蛋白与染色质的结合,影响基因表达。

       3.非编码RNA调控

  非编码RNA指不能翻译为蛋白质的,具有调控作用的功能性RNA分子,在调控基因表达过程中发挥着很大的作用。非编码RNA调控是通过某些机制实现对基因转录的调控,如RNA干扰。

       4.染色质重塑

  染色质重塑是由染色质重塑复合物介导的一系列以染色质上核小体变化为基本特征的生物学过程,是一个重要的表观遗传学机制。

       5.核小体定位

  核小体是基因转录的障碍,被组蛋白紧密缠绕的DNA是无法与众多转录因子以及活化因子结合的。因此,核小体在基因组位置的改变对于调控基因表达有着重要影响。随着DNA复制、重组、修复以及转录控制等生命活动的开展,染色质上的核小体定位一直处于动态变化之中,这种不断的变化需要一系列染色质重塑复合体的作用。


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